Over the years, the computer based information system has changed significantly resulting in several types of information systems to support decision making for the various types of managerial levels. These can be classified as either operations support system or management support system in computer based information system.
Type of Computer Based Information System
The operations support systems (OSS) computer based information system was developed in the 1950s to 1960s. It involved mainly processing business transactions, update corporate databases and accounts. In the operation support system type of computer based information system, the transaction processing systems record and process data resulting from daily business transactions. A transaction is a recorded event having to do with routine business activities such as production, distribution, sales and orders. Today, most organizations record their business transactions in a computer based information system. It is an operational level system and monitors status of internal operations and also provides raw materials information for other computer based information system. Examples of operation support system in types of computer based system include; transaction processing system (TPS), knowledge works system and office system
The transaction processing system has features that enable it to process information as computer based information system. These features include input in form of transaction for example data, bills, orders and output such as bills and paychecks. Since the transaction processing system deal with day-to-day matters, it is useful to lower managers in making operations decisions such as decide when to restock inventory where each department has its own transaction processing system of computer based information system. The transaction processing system has two basic ways to process transactions; the batch processing whereby the transaction data are accumulated over a period of time and processed periodically, and the real time or online processing where data are processed immediately after a transaction occurs the automated teller machines or commonly known as the ATMs is an example of real time processing in computer based information system.Engineering in Kenya has more information.
The knowledge work system and office systems of the operation support system in the computer based system are kwon to serve the knowledge level of the organization. Knowledge work systems has the knowledge workers, are members of a certain profession and knowledge work systems aid office workers in the creation and integration of new knowledge into the organization in management of the computer based information system. The office systems are in information technology applications designed to increase data worker’s productivity by supporting the co-ordination and communication activities of the typical office of computer based information system.
The other type of computer based information system is the management support systems which focus on providing information and support for effective decision making by managers. Several types of management support system support a variety of decision-making responsibilities for various management levels the top, middle and lower management level. These are management information systems, the decision support system and executive information systems of computer based information system.
Ideally, in computer based information system, the management information system was developed 1960s to 1970s which is a type of management support system. It is a computer based information system that derives data from all departments in the organization and produces routine reports of the organization’s performance, purpose, monitor and control operational level activities and provides weekly, monthly and yearly reports. The management information system has features that include input that consists of processed data from transaction processing system data while output consists of summarized, structured reports such as sales analysis, budget summaries and production schedules. The management information system helps middle level managers make tactical decisions in the computer based information system.
The other type of computer based information system of the management support system is the decision support systems and executive information systems which were developed 1980s to 1990s. They are also computer based information system that uses models with decision support system databases and draws data from transaction processing system and management information system files. The models allows the manager to do a simulation-play a “what if” game to reach decisions, they are unique, rapidly changing and not easily specified. These systems provide the critical information, when it is needed and tailored to the required formats in computer based information system
In the computer based information system, the decision support system is knowledge based that is, it uses databases and accesses both internal and external data. They are interactive and use modeling software unlike management information system in computer based information system. Features of decision support system include input consisting of summarized reports and both decision support system and executive support system support top executive managers in making strategic planning such as product pricing. The executive support system is an easier to use type than the decision support system for activities such as finance risk analysis and forecasting. Evaluation of tax consequences of a proposed schemes, legal advice, medical diagnosis, and computation of insurance claims and retirement benefits are business applications of executive support system in computer based information system.
Other types of Computer based Information System
Other than the two discussed type of computer based information system there is the expert systems and other knowledge based systems. The expert systems are artificial intelligent based systems that serve as consultants to users by providing expert advice in limited subject areas, also are used to solve specific problems such as how to reduce production costs, improve working productivity or reduce environmental impact and they are used at all management levels for specific problems. The other type of computer based information system is internetworked e-business and e-commerce systems which were developed in the 1990s to 2000s. The rapid growth of the internet and related technologies of the 1990s has revolutionized the way business are operated, how people work, how information system supports business operations and the end user work activities. E-business and e-commerce have been born out of this evolution of the intranets which are internet like networks inside an enterprise known as local area network (LAN) and extranets which are internet like networks between an enterprise and its trading partners the wide area network (WAN) in computer based information system.
Functions and Roles of Computer based Information System in Society
The computer based information system is a set of technologies that supports the efficient and effective business operations for example, retail shops use computer based information system to keep record of customer purchases, keep track of inventory, pay employees, buy new merchandise and evaluate sales trends. It also better customer relationship management, workgroups and enterprise collaboration rewarding and challenging career opportunities for young people. A key component for e-Commerce systems is the computer based information system.
The computer based information system has helped the society by successful management of functions areas of business such as finance, operations, marketing and human resource management. The computer based information system has also have being important in efficient business decision making by employees and managers such as what lines of merchandise need to be added or discontinued based on sales records and business strategies for competitive advantage over competitors. This provides a means of organizational renewal that help a company adopt strategies and business processes that enable it to reengineer or re-invent itself in order to survive and succeed in today’s dynamic e-business environment strategic information Systems of computer based information system.