Like all other sciences, mechanics physics is based on experimental observations and quantitative measurements. The main objective of mechanics physics is to find the limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena and to use them to develop theories that can predict the results of future experiments. The fundamental laws used in developing theories are expressed in the language of mathematics, the tool that provides a bridge between theory and experiment in mechanics physics. Engineering in Kenya has more articles.
In mechanical physics when a discrepancy between theory and experiment arises, new theories must be formulated to remove the discrepancy. Many times a theory is satisfactory only under limited conditions; a more general theory might be satisfactory without such limitations. For example, the laws of motion in mechanical physics discovered by Isaac Newton (1642–1727) in the 17th century accurately describe the motion of bodies at normal speeds but do not apply to objects moving at speeds comparable with the speed of light. In contrast, the special theory of relativity developed by Albert Einstein (1879–1955) in the early 1900s gives the same results as Newton’s laws at low speeds but also correctly describes motion at speeds approaching the speed of light in mechanical physics.
Hence, in mechanical physics Einstein’s is a more general theory of motion .Classical physics, which means all of the physics developed before 1900, includes the theories, concepts, laws, and experiments in classical mechanics physics, thermodynamics physics, and electromagnetism physics. Important contributions to classical physics were provided by Newton, who developed classical mechanics physics as a systematic theory and was one of the originators of calculus as a mathematical tool. Major developments in mechanics physics continued in the 18th century, but the fields of thermodynamics and electricity and magnetism were not developed until the latter part of the 19th century, principally because before that time the apparatus for controlled experiments was either too crude or unavailable.
A new era in physics, usually referred to as modern physics, began near the end of the 19th century. Modern physics developed mainly because of the discovery that many physical phenomena could not be explained by classical mechanical physics. The two most important developments in modern physics were the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics physics. Einstein’s theory of relativity revolutionized the traditional concepts of space, time, and energy; quantum mechanics physics, which applies to both the microscopic and macroscopic worlds, was originally formulated by a number of distinguished scientists to provide descriptions of physical phenomena at the atomic level in quantum mechanics physics.
Mechanics physics as a branch of classical physics that deals with motion or change in position of physical objects is divided into three groups. These groups are the kinematic, the dynamics and the statics. The kinematics as a group of mechanic physics deals with mathematic description of geometry of motion in terms of position, velocity and acceleration. The dynamics physics deals with physical courses of motion and the statics deals with condition where there is no motion.
The first step in studying classical mechanics physics is the description of motion in terms of space and time while ignoring the agents that caused that motion and this portion of classical mechanics physics is called kinematics. The first phase in this group of mechanics physics is to consider motion only in one dimension which is defined into displacement, velocity, and acceleration. From everyday experience we recognize that motion represents a continuous change in the position of an object and in kinematics of mechanics physics it is concerned with three types of motion: translational, rotational, and vibration. A car moving down a highway is an example of translational motion, the Earth’s spin on its axis is an example of rotational motion, and the back and forth movement of a pendulum is an example of vibration motion of kinematics in mechanics physics.
The second phase in the study of the kinematics in mechanics physics is the study of a particle moving in two dimensions. The basics of two dimensional motions examine an object moving horizontally and in vertical motion in mechanics physics. The projectile motion and uniform circular motion are the special cases of motion in two dimensions of kinematics. As in the case of one dimensional motion, there are also kinematic equations for two dimensional motions derived from the fundamental definitions of these three quantities vector nature of displacement, velocity, and acceleration quantities mostly used in mechanical physics.
The next step in studying of the mechanics physics is the dynamics which deals with the course of motion which is the concept of energy one of the most important topics in science and engineering. In everyday life, the term energy is thought in terms of fuel for transportation and heating, electricity for lights and appliances, and foods for consumption however, these do not really define energy. It is in this group of the mechanics physics the concepts of work, kinetic energy; potential energy and moment of forces are first introduced. Work is done by force acting on an object when the point of application of that force moves through some distance and the force has a component along the line of motion in mechanics physics.
Next is the static which deals with the condition of equilibrium of body in mechanics physics. Engineer and architect need to know when a body remains at a rest or equilibrium when under any forces. The most common forces under equilibrium condition in mechanics physics include weight, tension, friction and normal reaction. In this concept of static in mechanics physics the concept of center of mass, the point at which an applied force produce acceleration but no rotation and center of gravity the point where the resultant force of attraction or weight of the body acts as described in mechanics physics.
Laws in Mechanics Physics
As defined mechanics physics is the study of motion or change in position of physical object therefore laws that govern this motion. These laws are commonly known as the Newton’s Laws of motion which are mainly three and they deal with forces and masses and were formulated more than three centuries ago by Isaac Newton. The first Newton’s law explains what happens to an object when no forces act on it and was derived from the fact that, in the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant velocity that is, with a constant speed in a straight line. It is described as, when no force acts on an object, the acceleration of the object is zero in simpler terms of mechanics physics.
The second law of mechanics physics discovered by Isaac Newton relates mass and force. It answers the question of what happens to an object that has none zero resultant force acting on it in mechanics physics. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass and these observations are summarized in Newton’s second law of motion. It is the force of 1 Newton that gives a mass of 1 kilogram and acceleration of 1 meter per second in the terms of mechanics physics. The third Newton’s law in mechanics physics illustrates how the force from that the motion of an object affects a second, external, object. The external object, in turn, is subject to an equal magnitude but oppositely directed force exerted on it which described as, action and reaction force which are equal and opposite, in the mechanics physics terms.
Application on Mechanics Physics
Scientists constantly work at improving our understanding of phenomena and fundamental laws, and new discoveries are made every day in quantum mechanics physics. In many research areas, a great deal of overlap exists between physics, chemistry, geology, and biology, as well as engineering. Some of the most notable developments in mechanics physics are
(1) Numerous space missions and the landing of astronauts on the Moon,
(2) Micro circuitry and high-speed computers, and
(3) Sophisticated imaging techniques used in scientific research and medicine.
Also, in mechanics physics, there four fundamental forces that are in application in day to day life. These forces are gravitational force, which help us to walk and objects to stay in equilibrium; electromagnetic force, which is mainly used in production of electricity; nuclear force strongest of all force that holds protons and nucleus in an atom and the weak force which are from special reaction such as radioactivity. The impact such developments and discoveries have had on our society has indeed been great, and it is very likely that future discoveries and developments will be just as exciting and challenging and of great benefit to humanity of the quantum mechanics physics.