The majority of known applications of nuclear physics are nuclear weapons technology and nuclear power generation. Research has provided other application in many fields, including those in magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, ion implantation in materials engineering, radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.
The field of particle physics generated out of nuclear physics and is normally taught in close connection with nuclear physics.
The Men behind the Discovery of Nuclear Physics PDF
The history of nuclear physics PDF as a discipline dates back when Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896. He was investigating on phosphorescence in uranium salts when he made the discovery.
A year later, J. J. Thomson discovered the electron. This indicated that the atom had internal structure. Thomson’s model had a large positively charged ball. The electrons were embedded along its peripheral.
Early in the 20th century physicists also discovered three types of emission emanating from atoms. This was the gamma, alpha and beta radiations.
In 1911 Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn, and James Chadwick performed experiments that lead to the discovery that beta decay spectrum is continuous rather than discrete. Electrons can be ejected from the atom with varying energies when dealing with beta rays.
Discrete amount s of energies is involved when experimenting in gamma and alpha decays. This was a major problem for nuclear physics at the time, since it indicated that energy was not preserved in these decays.
University Manchester Experiments on Nuclear Physics PDF
In 1910 at the University of Manchester, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden under the supervision of as Ernest Rutherford’s team performed a notable experiment where they fired alpha particles at a slim film of gold foil.
The plum pudding model prospected that the alpha particles ought to come out of the foil with slightly bent trajectories. In the experiment, a few particles were sprinkled through large angles; some were even completely backwards, in some instances.
He likened this particle scattering with firing a tissue paper a bullet and having it bounce off. Rutherford’s analysis data in 1911 together with this discovery, led him to come up with his model of atom.
Nuclear Physics PDF on Rutherford`s Model of Atom
The model of the atom had a tiny, dense nucleus which contained most of its mass. It had heavy positively charged particles and negative charges embedded on its peripheral
A neutron atom was said to have same number of protons as the electrons. The neutron was the unknown. His example was nitrogen 14 which has 14 protons and 7 electrons. The neutrons were surrounded by 7 more orbiting electrons.
The Rutherford replica worked fairly fine until studies of nuclear spin in 1929 by Franco Rasetti at the California Institute of Technology.
Rutherford`s model of nitrogen-14, populated that 20 of the total 21 nuclear particles ought to pair and cancel each other’s spin, the last odd particle was supposed to have left the nucleus with an overall spin of 1/2. Rasetti who contributed verily to nuclear physics PDF discovered, that nitrogen-14 has a spin of 1.