In any organization, various types of Information System are applied in order to achieve the success of the organization. It is therefore, important to look at an organization in terms of its departments, tasks, management levels and types of information required at each management level of the information system in an organization. Engineering in Kenya has more information.
Organization’s Departments in Information System
In all the organizations, information has to flow for successful management hence need for Information System in the department of the organization. The purpose of any organization or business is to perform a service or deliver a product. For example, a non-profit organization such as a college delivers the service of educating students; an NGO may deliver food for famine victims, a profit-oriented organization may sell the services of fixing computers, banking services among other more. To this end, most of the business organizations are structured into four or five departments in the information system in organizations.
One of the department in information system in organization is the research and development which conducts the basic research and performs product development which include to develop, tests, and modifies new products or services created by researcher. Two is the productions that turn raw materials into finished products or delivers services and three is the marketing that oversees advertisement, promotion and sales. Accounting and Finance which pays bills, paychecks, and produces financial budget and forecasts financial performance and lastly is the human resources and personnel that hire employees, administration sick leave and retirement matters are the other department of information system found in organization. Each of the above departments has managers and employees who perform several functions in the organization of information in an information system in an organization.
A manager’s job in the organization of information system is to decide on the best course of action, based on facts known at the time in the organization. Managers rely on available information to make decisions regarding their tasks and for each of the 4 or 5 departments, there are 3 traditional levels of management the top level managers also called chief executive officers (CEO), middle level managers and the lower or supervisory also called operational manager in organization of information system in the departments.
The top management level in information system known commonly known as chief executive officer are concerned with long term or yearly planning such as setting strategies. The types of decision made at this level are strategic; that is they are rarely based on predetermined routine procedures and involve the subjective judgment of the decision maker, they are usually unstructured with high degree of uncertainty & risks hence require high judgment, directed towards such issues as application of scarce resources and policy formulation of the information system. Information needed to be able to make strategic decisions, should be from both external and internal sources highly summarized, prepared on ad-hoc basis and both quantitative and qualitative information in the information system organization. The vice-presidents, managing directors, board of directors, treasurer, and controller are examples of top level management in information system.
The second management level of information system in organization is the middle level managers. They deal mostly with organizing and staffing including how best to allocate and control the available resources. They make tactical decisions semi structured that is combines both defined or semi defined facts and human judgment decisions which are meant to implement the goals set by strategic management of the organization in the information system. Information supplied to this class of managers should be more summarized, that is from restricted range of internal sources, and suitable for short to intermediate range such as forecasts and periodic reports. Personnel such as plant managers, sales managers, branch managers are considered as the middle level management of the information in an organization.
Lastly in the management level of the information system of the organization in the departments is the lower or supervisory also kwon as the operational manager. They manage or monitor non management employees and the operations in day-to-day activities such as processing, inventory control, and production scheduling and supervisory of the organization in accordance to its objective. The type of decision made in this level are operational decisions usually routine that is recurring and structured decisions whose outcome is predictable and based on a well defined set of procedures of detailed information. Decisions at this level have an immediate but short term impact on organization for examples warehouse managers in charge of inventory restocking. Information required in making the decision need to be derived from internal sources and relevant in short term, that is day to day planning, and highly detailed information in an organization of information system.
All information to support decision making at any management level in the organization of information system should be correct and accurate; complete that is include all relevant data, yet concise, include only relevant data; cost effective , that is efficiently obtained yet understandable and current, that is timely, yet time sensitive based on historical, current, or future information needs. Hence, Information in an organization of information system has three distinct properties
a) Level of summarization
b) Degree of accuracy
The above properties may vary in the degree to which information is structured in an information system organization which is, structured information which are detailed, current, concerned with least events, requires high accuracy, records a narrow range of acts and covers an organizations internal activities, unstructured opposite of structured and the semi structured which includes both structured and semi structured. Top level Manager need unstructured information to make strategic decisions, the middle level managers need semi-structured information for tactical decisions while supervisors need structured information for operations decisions. Thus, in designing an information system in an organization, the analysis should determine the type of information needed and the level of structuring format of the information system of the organization.
Functions of a Manager in the organization of information system
A manager in any organization within the organization information system oversees the tasks of planning that is setting objectives, long-term and short-term and developing strategies for achieving them. Also they are responsible for organizing, making orderly arrangement of resources the people or material, and staffing that is selecting, train and develops people. The other main function of managers in information system is supervising or leading by directing or guiding employees to work towards achieving the organization goals and controlling by monitoring the organization’s progress towards achieving its goals. All managers perform the above roles but their level of responsibility varies with level of management in an organization in the information system.