ü The operating system as an extended machine language, whereby its function is to present the user with equivalent of an extended machine or internal machine language. That is it provides the user with virtual machine that is more convenient to use than that of actual machine.
ü The operating system as a resource manager. The job of the operating system is to manage all the parts of the modern operating for example the peripheral devices such as the printer, disk, mice, processor, memory and many more. Engineering in Kenya has more information
The modern computer system consist of one or more processes, main memory, disk, keyboards, display, network interface and other input and output devices. To manage this devices the computer is equipped with a layer of software called operating system. The modern operating system helps to manage all these devices and provides the user with programs which have a simpler interface and understandable.
Types of Modern Operating System
The modern operating systems consist of several types which include mainframe operating system. They distinguish themselves from personal computer in terms of their input and output capacity as well as memory size. The mainframe computer are oriented towards processing many jobs at once that most which require prodigious amount of input and output devices, which is managed by the mainframe operating system. There are three kinds of the mainframe operating systems, the batch system, the transaction system and the time sharing system. Examples of mainframe operating system include operating system 360 and 390.
The other type of modern operating system is the server operating system, which is mainly run on servers that are large personal computers workstations or even mainframe. They serve multiple users at once over a network and allow user to share hardware and software resources. The server operating system can provide services such as file service or web service. Examples of server operating system are windows 2003, UNIX, Fedora, Linux core.
An increasing way to get a computer system with a high computing power is to connect multiple central processing units into a single system. Depending on precisely how the processors are connected and what is shared, they are called multicomputer or multiprocessors system. Examples of multiprocessor operating system in the modern operating system include Microsoft windows XP, VISTA and windows 7 premium and ultimate.
The other type of modern operating system is the personal computer operating system. They are meant for a single user only and are widely used for word processing, spreadsheet and internet access. Examples of personal computer operating system are windows 98, XP, 7, Linux Obuntu and Solaris.
The real time operating system among the modern operating system has time as key parameter. A kind of real time system is a soft real time system in which missing an occasional deadline is acceptable for example digital audio or multimedia system. Examples of real time operating system are VX works and QNX.
Also among the modern operating system is the embedded operating system. It runs on computer that control devices that not thought of as computers for example television sets, microwaves ovens and mobile phones. These devices have the same characteristic of real time system, but also have size, memory and power restrictions that make them special. Examples of embedded operating system are palm operating system or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), windows consumer electronics, windows mobile, maemo, symbian (nokia), Google android, iphones operating system and many others.
Among the latest modern operating system and the smallest among the operating systems is the smart card operating system. They run on smart cards, which are credit card-sized devices containing a CPU chip. They have very severe processing power and memory constraints and some of them can handle only a single function, such as electronic payments, but others can handle multiple functions on the same smart card.
Growth and Development of the Modern Operating System
In the growth and development of the modern operating system something analogous has happened in the computer industry. Each new species mainframe, minicomputer, personal computer, embedded computer and smart card seems to go through the development that its ancestors did. The first mainframes were programmed entirely in assembly language. Even complex programs, like compilers and operating systems in it, were written in assembler.
By the time minicomputers appeared on the scene, FORTRAN, COBOL, and other high-level languages were common on mainframes, but the new minicomputers were nevertheless programmed in assembler due to lack of memory. When microcomputers were invented, they, too, were programmed in assembler, even though by then minicomputers were also programmed in high-level languages. Palmtop computers consisting of the modern operating system also started with assembly code but quickly moved on to high-level language.
The first mainframes initially had no protection hardware and no support for multiprogramming, so they ran simple operating systems that handled one manually-loaded program at a time. Later they acquired the hardware and operating system support to handle multiple programs at once, and then full timesharing capabilities. When minicomputers first appeared, they also had no protection hardware and ran one manually-loaded program at a time, even though multiprogramming was well established in the mainframe world by then. Gradually in the development and growth of the modern operating system, they acquired protection hardware and the ability to run two or more programs at once.
Also in the growth and the development of the modern operating system the disks first appeared on large mainframes, then on minicomputers, microcomputers, and so on down the line. Even now, smart cards do not have hard disks, but with the advent of flash ROM, they will soon have the equivalent of it. When disks first appeared, primitive file systems sprung up. The file system consisted of users having the ability to create a file and then declare it to be permanent, meaning it stayed on the disk even after the creating program exited
Virtual memory, the ability to run programs larger than the physical memory, had a similar development during the growth of the modern operating system. It first appeared in mainframes, minicomputers, microcomputers and gradually worked its way down to smaller and smaller systems.
A similar history in the growth and development of modern operating system is networking. In all cases, the software development was dictated by the technology. As the microcomputers evolved into modern personal computers, they acquired the necessary hardware and then the necessary software to handle more advanced features. It is likely that this development will continue for years to come. Other fields may also have this wheel of reincarnation, but in the computer industry it seems to spin faster.
Examples of Modern Operating System in use
As technology lead to the advancement in the modern operating system, it led to the emergent of different kind of manufactures of operating system. The most common known manufacturer of operating is the Microsoft Company founded by Bill Gate. It’s the main producer of the Microsoft windows the Microsoft DOS, 95, 98, 2000, NT, 2003, XP, vista and windows 7. Other operating system in the market by other companies include the Linux distributor, Unix, Solaris, HP hax, Mac operating system and the Berkeley Software Distribution